# Generalized Ufuncs

NumPy provides the concept of generalized ufuncs. Generalized ufuncs are functions that distinguish the various dimensions of passed arrays in the two classes loop dimensions and core dimensions. To accomplish this, a signature is specified for NumPy generalized ufuncs.

Dask integrates interoperability with NumPy’s generalized ufuncs by adhering to respective ufunc protocol, and provides a wrapper to make a Python function a generalized ufunc.

## Usage

### NumPy Generalized UFuncs

Note

NumPy generalized ufuncs are currently (v1.14.3 and below) stored in inside `np.linalg._umath_linalg` and might change in the future.

```import dask.array as da
import numpy as np

x = da.random.normal(size=(3, 10, 10), chunks=(2, 10, 10))

w, v = np.linalg._umath_linalg.eig(x, output_dtypes=(float, float))
```

### Create Generalized UFuncs

It can be difficult to create your own GUFuncs without going into the CPython API. However, the Numba project does provide a nice implementation with their `numba.guvectorize` decorator. See Numba’s documentation for more information.

### Wrap your own Python function

`gufunc` can be used to make a Python function behave like a generalized ufunc:

```x = da.random.normal(size=(10, 5), chunks=(2, 5))

def foo(x):
return np.mean(x, axis=-1)

gufoo = da.gufunc(foo, signature="(i)->()", output_dtypes=float, vectorize=True)

y = gufoo(x)
```

Instead of `gufunc`, also the `as_gufunc` decorator can be used for convenience:

```x = da.random.normal(size=(10, 5), chunks=(2, 5))

@da.as_gufunc(signature="(i)->()", output_dtypes=float, vectorize=True)
def gufoo(x):
return np.mean(x, axis=-1)

y = gufoo(x)
```

## Disclaimer

This experimental generalized ufunc integration is not complete:

• `gufunc` does not create a true generalized ufunc to be used with other input arrays besides Dask. I.e., at the moment, `gufunc` casts all input arguments to `dask.array.Array`

• Inferring `output_dtypes` automatically is not implemented yet

## API

 `apply_gufunc`(func, signature, *args[, axes, ...]) Apply a generalized ufunc or similar python function to arrays. `as_gufunc`([signature]) Decorator for `dask.array.gufunc`. `gufunc`(pyfunc, **kwargs) Binds pyfunc into `dask.array.apply_gufunc` when called.