dask.array.map_blocks

dask.array.map_blocks

dask.array.map_blocks(func, *args, name=None, token=None, dtype=None, chunks=None, drop_axis=[], new_axis=None, meta=None, **kwargs)[source]

Map a function across all blocks of a dask array.

Note that map_blocks will attempt to automatically determine the output array type by calling func on 0-d versions of the inputs. Please refer to the meta keyword argument below if you expect that the function will not succeed when operating on 0-d arrays.

Parameters
funccallable

Function to apply to every block in the array. If func accepts block_info= or block_id= as keyword arguments, these will be passed dictionaries containing information about input and output chunks/arrays during computation. See examples for details.

argsdask arrays or other objects
dtypenp.dtype, optional

The dtype of the output array. It is recommended to provide this. If not provided, will be inferred by applying the function to a small set of fake data.

chunkstuple, optional

Chunk shape of resulting blocks if the function does not preserve shape. If not provided, the resulting array is assumed to have the same block structure as the first input array.

drop_axisnumber or iterable, optional

Dimensions lost by the function.

new_axisnumber or iterable, optional

New dimensions created by the function. Note that these are applied after drop_axis (if present).

tokenstring, optional

The key prefix to use for the output array. If not provided, will be determined from the function name.

namestring, optional

The key name to use for the output array. Note that this fully specifies the output key name, and must be unique. If not provided, will be determined by a hash of the arguments.

metaarray-like, optional

The meta of the output array, when specified is expected to be an array of the same type and dtype of that returned when calling .compute() on the array returned by this function. When not provided, meta will be inferred by applying the function to a small set of fake data, usually a 0-d array. It’s important to ensure that func can successfully complete computation without raising exceptions when 0-d is passed to it, providing meta will be required otherwise. If the output type is known beforehand (e.g., np.ndarray, cupy.ndarray), an empty array of such type dtype can be passed, for example: meta=np.array((), dtype=np.int32).

**kwargs

Other keyword arguments to pass to function. Values must be constants (not dask.arrays)

See also

dask.array.blockwise

Generalized operation with control over block alignment.

Examples

>>> import dask.array as da
>>> x = da.arange(6, chunks=3)
>>> x.map_blocks(lambda x: x * 2).compute()
array([ 0,  2,  4,  6,  8, 10])

The da.map_blocks function can also accept multiple arrays.

>>> d = da.arange(5, chunks=2)
>>> e = da.arange(5, chunks=2)
>>> f = da.map_blocks(lambda a, b: a + b**2, d, e)
>>> f.compute()
array([ 0,  2,  6, 12, 20])

If the function changes shape of the blocks then you must provide chunks explicitly.

>>> y = x.map_blocks(lambda x: x[::2], chunks=((2, 2),))

You have a bit of freedom in specifying chunks. If all of the output chunk sizes are the same, you can provide just that chunk size as a single tuple.

>>> a = da.arange(18, chunks=(6,))
>>> b = a.map_blocks(lambda x: x[:3], chunks=(3,))

If the function changes the dimension of the blocks you must specify the created or destroyed dimensions.

>>> b = a.map_blocks(lambda x: x[None, :, None], chunks=(1, 6, 1),
...                  new_axis=[0, 2])

If chunks is specified but new_axis is not, then it is inferred to add the necessary number of axes on the left.

Map_blocks aligns blocks by block positions without regard to shape. In the following example we have two arrays with the same number of blocks but with different shape and chunk sizes.

>>> x = da.arange(1000, chunks=(100,))
>>> y = da.arange(100, chunks=(10,))

The relevant attribute to match is numblocks.

>>> x.numblocks
(10,)
>>> y.numblocks
(10,)

If these match (up to broadcasting rules) then we can map arbitrary functions across blocks

>>> def func(a, b):
...     return np.array([a.max(), b.max()])
>>> da.map_blocks(func, x, y, chunks=(2,), dtype='i8')
dask.array<func, shape=(20,), dtype=int64, chunksize=(2,), chunktype=numpy.ndarray>
>>> _.compute()
array([ 99,   9, 199,  19, 299,  29, 399,  39, 499,  49, 599,  59, 699,
        69, 799,  79, 899,  89, 999,  99])

Your block function can get information about where it is in the array by accepting a special block_info or block_id keyword argument. During computation, they will contain information about each of the input and output chunks (and dask arrays) relevant to each call of func.

>>> def func(block_info=None):
...     pass

This will receive the following information:

>>> block_info  
{0: {'shape': (1000,),
     'num-chunks': (10,),
     'chunk-location': (4,),
     'array-location': [(400, 500)]},
 None: {'shape': (1000,),
        'num-chunks': (10,),
        'chunk-location': (4,),
        'array-location': [(400, 500)],
        'chunk-shape': (100,),
        'dtype': dtype('float64')}}

The keys to the block_info dictionary indicate which is the input and output Dask array:

  • Input Dask array(s): block_info[0] refers to the first input Dask array. The dictionary key is 0 because that is the argument index corresponding to the first input Dask array. In cases where multiple Dask arrays have been passed as input to the function, you can access them with the number corresponding to the input argument, eg: block_info[1], block_info[2], etc. (Note that if you pass multiple Dask arrays as input to map_blocks, the arrays must match each other by having matching numbers of chunks, along corresponding dimensions up to broadcasting rules.)

  • Output Dask array: block_info[None] refers to the output Dask array, and contains information about the output chunks. The output chunk shape and dtype may may be different than the input chunks.

For each dask array, block_info describes:

  • shape: the shape of the full Dask array,

  • num-chunks: the number of chunks of the full array in each dimension,

  • chunk-location: the chunk location (for example the fourth chunk over in the first dimension), and

  • array-location: the array location within the full Dask array (for example the slice corresponding to 40:50).

In addition to these, there are two extra parameters described by block_info for the output array (in block_info[None]):

  • chunk-shape: the output chunk shape, and

  • dtype: the output dtype.

These features can be combined to synthesize an array from scratch, for example:

>>> def func(block_info=None):
...     loc = block_info[None]['array-location'][0]
...     return np.arange(loc[0], loc[1])
>>> da.map_blocks(func, chunks=((4, 4),), dtype=np.float_)
dask.array<func, shape=(8,), dtype=float64, chunksize=(4,), chunktype=numpy.ndarray>
>>> _.compute()
array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7])

block_id is similar to block_info but contains only the chunk_location:

>>> def func(block_id=None):
...     pass

This will receive the following information:

>>> block_id  
(4, 3)

You may specify the key name prefix of the resulting task in the graph with the optional token keyword argument.

>>> x.map_blocks(lambda x: x + 1, name='increment')
dask.array<increment, shape=(1000,), dtype=int64, chunksize=(100,), chunktype=numpy.ndarray>

For functions that may not handle 0-d arrays, it’s also possible to specify meta with an empty array matching the type of the expected result. In the example below, func will result in an IndexError when computing meta:

>>> da.map_blocks(lambda x: x[2], da.random.random(5), meta=np.array(()))
dask.array<lambda, shape=(5,), dtype=float64, chunksize=(5,), chunktype=numpy.ndarray>

Similarly, it’s possible to specify a non-NumPy array to meta, and provide a dtype:

>>> import cupy  
>>> rs = da.random.RandomState(RandomState=cupy.random.RandomState)  
>>> dt = np.float32
>>> da.map_blocks(lambda x: x[2], rs.random(5, dtype=dt), meta=cupy.array((), dtype=dt))  
dask.array<lambda, shape=(5,), dtype=float32, chunksize=(5,), chunktype=cupy.ndarray>